Taste and a smell
Sense of smell and taste, is no time so necessary for the person for a survival as hearing, touch and sight, are nowadays much more poorly developed, than at animals, and play a supporting role.
- For roses much true beauty it is hidden in their delightful aroma.
- Liznuv ice-cream a language tip, we in all completeness feel its amazing taste!
Since the person has risen with chetverenek and has torn off a nose from the earth, his life has ceased to depend in the same measure on sense of smell and taste, as a life of other animals. Having lost former value, these physical feelings serve now the person almost only for a choice and reception of pleasure from meal and drink.
the Chemical nature of feelings
At taste and sense of smell the general chemical nature. It means that they represent reaction to chemical substances present at environment. Tasting something, we feel presence at a mouth of those or other chemical substances, and smelling - we register their presence in air in the gaseous form.
Pure air represents a mix of not having smell of gases - mainly, nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) with insignificant impurity of inert gases. Air can contain to 5% of the water steams which too do not have a smell. Any other impurity can be found out on a smell. Even the most insignificant concentration of chemical impurity can be guessed a nose which will prompt to the owner that suits in food and that is not present that exudes an unpleasant smell (and it is better to keep from it far away), and that, probably, is a smell of other animal - the friend or the enemy.
Sense of smell
Well-known that we are capable to distinguish much more smell shades, than sounds. However it is difficult to scientists to understand that occurs, when we smell a smell as chemical substances present at air are perceived by a nose and are interpreted by a brain. Till now there is no accurate understanding and how language distinguishes and will transform chemical substances to the flavouring information.
- Any head cook will tell that it is impossible to judge freshness of a product on one appearance. In this trade not to do without a fine sense of smell.
the Most thin hairs
However, it is known that the small site in a back part of a nasal cavity abounds with the nervous terminations perceiving smells. This site named olfactory epiteliem, or olfactory area, is literally stuffed by millions nervous terminations. Not less ten the most thin hairs, or zhgutikov has each of them. They are constantly humidified with slime which too serves as a trap for odorous substances. But because of inaccessibility of olfactory area it is difficult to scientists to investigate processes occurring in it.
Believe that at inhalation with air of odorous substances accessible to our sense of smell they are dissolved in the slime humidifying zhgutiki therefore these most thin hairs become covered by a solution of odorous substances. Reacting to them, zhgutiki send signals to olfactory cages for the further transfer on corresponding nervous fibres (them name olfactory nerves). Then these signals are transferred in an olfactory brain - the site of a brain much more poorly developed at people, rather than at animals.
the Basic smells
How much we can judge, all olfactory cages operating as receptors of chemical substances distinguished on a smell, are absolutely identical, on it remains a riddle as they distinguish thousand diverse smells.
For many centuries people have allocated six "юёэютэ№§" smells: flower, fruit, fetid, spicy, resinous (as turpentine) and a smell of burning.
To possess a smell, the substance should evaporate microscopic particles. The least "ъшЁяшёшърьш" any substance molecules, and as believe are, olfactory cages are capable to distinguish molecules under their form.
Particles and a smell
The more particles lets out substance, the has more strongly begun to smell. For example, chicken soup boiling on a plate smells more strongly, than cold chicken meat on a plate as about steam to air gets more than odorous particles. They also are distinguished as smells owing to the ability to be dissolved in water. Under the influence of heat to air gets more particles, and the moisture containing in air provides their raised concentration, therefore in warm and damp atmosphere smells amplify. Possibly, you and noticed that in warm a smoke after a summer rain the garden or grass fragrance amplifies; or that the pinch of salt for baths publishes in hot water stronger aroma, than the whole dry packing.
Adaptation and masking
If you enter into a premise where someone eats cutlets with onions, the pungent smell immediately will strike to you in a nose though people being here do not notice it. This phenomenon is called as adaptation. The reason, apparently, that when all receptors "чряюыэхэ№" odorous chemical particles, they cease to send signals to a brain.
Probably, you asked a question as osvezhiteli air eliminate unpleasant smells. This effect is called as masking. Osvezhitel at all does not delete from air badly smelling particles, but thanking its presence we cease to notice them. Something similar occurs and at hearing masking when the loud sound muffles more silent even if our ears are perceived by both frequencies. We yet do not know, why one smell "уЁюьёх" another. By itself if at air there are two smells, masking occurs no means always. Often both smells mix up or are still perceived separately.
About taste it is known much more, than about sense of smell, and it is considered to be that the basic tastes only four: sweet, salty, sour and bitter. But all riches of shades of that name taste, we are obliged to sense of smell. Should be, you had time to notice that at strong cold sense of smell for a while vanishes, and the food becomes insipid. And the matter is that at cold you receive the information on taste only from language. As have shown experiments, tasting products only language, the person does not distinguish even the cleared apple from a crude potato.
Being, as a matter of fact, reaction to chemical substances, taste in many respects it is similar to sense of smell. Like odorous chemical compounds, the substances giving to us sensation of taste, should be dissolved. Only when the dry food is dissolved by a saliva, we can define its taste. Salt presence is defined very quickly as it is quickly dissolved in a saliva. More difficult on substance structure are dissolved in a mouth longer and consequently we feel their taste not so quickly, as salt.
The Receptors catching signals from dissolved chemical substances of which our food consists, are called as flavouring sosochkami. These are congestions of microscopic cages, or the nervous terminations, on tiny bugorkah, located on language, the sky and a throat. Everyone flavouring sosochek is a cluster from 50 with superfluous the cages connected to a brain by nervous fibres. All flavouring sosochki are capable to distinguish four basic tastes. Some of them serve as basic cages, the others - flavouring. Like the smell receptors, each flavouring cage has a tiny hair (microcountry house). External extremities flavouring sosochkov are connected with osjazatelnymi nerves thanks to what taste and touch of food in a mouth are closely connected among themselves. Having heard dispute on what beef is more tasty - is thin or roughly cut, - you can ask a question, and in what, actually, a difference. However its flavouring perception depends on touch of food language also.
a language Structure
Is better the top (tip) of language, on sour - its lateral edges, on salty - area in the neighbourhood with a top and on bitter - radical area reacts on sweet. As well as the smell receptors, all flavouring sosochki are similar against each other, however in different departments of language they to a miscellaneous are grouped. Still remains a riddle as the same cages perceive different razdrazhiteli. Scientists believe that the organism develops so-called retseptornye substances with which help distinctions in taste are felt. Till now in experiments on animals the proteins operating as receptors of bitterness and sweet have been opened only. It is not excluded that different departments of language develop different quantities retseptornyh substances. Though accurate representation how it occurs, scientists yet have no, but already now it is possible with sufficient confidence to assume that, coming into contact to the dissolved chemical substances, flavouring sosochki publish a corresponding electric impulse which on nerves arrives in a brain.
It is tasty or not?
Besides taste, on our representation that we eat, the whole bouquet of impressions influences. First of all, the gases allocated at a chewing of food, rise in a nose cavity, influencing sense of smell. The food structure has value also. Temperature and painful sensations are connected to process - after all the spicy food stimulates painful receptors (having brushed adzhikoj on the person, you will feel on a skin the same burning, as well as in language). Receptors of touch and pressure prompt that at us in a mouth - crackling slices or a cream, rigid food or soft; ears perceive the sounds published by food at a chewing. And, by itself, memory - we for a long time will remember caused disgust a dish.
At last, eyes report on appearance of this or that dish, and we come back time and again to it in memory. Possibly, at you slobbers not only at the sight of time and again flew, but also at one thought about chemnibud vkusnenkom. It is possible to make curious experiment with friends, tasting something blindfold. You, for example, will find out that cannot distinguish orange juice from grejpfrutovogo, without seeing them and without having presented in advance taste. Any good cook knows that beautifully issued dish strengthens appetite, and your experiments it will confirm. Whatever you may say, and all of us have got used to rely more on sight, than on sense of smell and taste.
- Our scent is much weaker, than at animals, and the majority of people simply does not feel natural smells published by us for attraction of the sexual partner, relying in it on is artificial the created aromas.
- Defining quality of wine, the skilled taster is necessary not only on the sensitive sky, but also on a fine sense of smell. For the real expert in a race of wine there are no secrets.
- a fruit Growing in the Western Africa name "тюы°хсэ№ь" because it transforms sour food into the sweet. Believe that it contains a protein forcing flavouring sosochki to submit signals about presence of sweet in the presence of acid.
- Salty and sweet taste have more than the general, than it seems at first sight. At very high (threshold) concentration salt seems sweet.
- By some estimations, for definition of taste it is required to us in 25 000 times more substances, than for smell definition.
- At the adult person about 9000 flavouring sosochkov. Udetej it is more than them.
- Flying substances, for example, gasoline, usually possess a strong smell as get to a nose in enough high concentration.
- Wishing to sniff properly to something, we automatically involve air a nose to grasp more than odorous particles.