Medicine and sports
does not pass also weeks without the message on illness or a trauma of any sports celebrity. However the sports medicine is not limited to care only about superstars, making recommendations about schedules of trainings, to diagnostics of problems and selection of methods of treatment. Any family doctor is involved in it, obliged to help the patient who has stretched sheaves during morning jog, or to cure a muscle torn at usual game in badminton.
The Subject of interest of sports medicine is almost any illness or a trauma which the person can face, going in for sports and outdoor games - from usual football before hand gliding.
Sometimes the sports medicine is distinguished from its other versions by not so much disease, how many character of the patient. Even many sportsmen-fans do not feel sorry for themselves on trainings and competitions. The order of the doctor to make a break because of a trauma plunges them into deep despondency, and all of them forces aspire to return to a system. And if the trauma is received by the known sportsman financial rates and interests of prestige fly up to heavens. Here on a card all is really put.
As a result of sick not always follows a doctor's advice. And then not healed trauma can aggravate its condition only. Therefore in sports of the higher achievements a huge role plays not only sports medicine, but also sports psychology.
The carried investigations have defined, what parts of a body are most subject to traumas in different kinds and at different levels of sports. According to one statistical analysis the first place (24%) is occupied with knee traumas. Afterwards there are traumas of calves and soles, including an Achilles' sinew of which it will be a question more low, (14%). 13% are necessary on elbow traumas, 10% - shins, 9% - shoulders, 9% - hips and a basin, 7% - heads and persons, 5% - anklebones and feet, 4% - wrists and palms, 4% - a stomach and 1% - pahovoj to area.
the Form and stock
The Essential element of everyone including, medicine preventive maintenance is sports. nest numbers with that who was traumatised or was ill only because did not use appropriate stock or the form. Preventive maintenance includes also such measures, as carrying of special footwear for the given kind of the sports, protecting foot from blisters and attritions. We will tell, boots for a skating should support reliably an anklebone, soles of footwear for marafontsev - to absorb vibration influencing a backbone.
Rules of some kinds of sports demand carrying of the special protective form and equipment. As a vivid example the amateur boxing with its protective helmet, kapoj and gloves serves. Are not less known and nakolennye a board ki in football, helmets in Rugby football and conducted-sports, and also life jackets in water kinds.
Training and warm-up
Many small traumas happen in the beginning and the end of a sports season. Business not only that the peak of the sports form is reached usually to its middle. The important role in maintenance "схчюярёэющ" games have coordination skills and a psychological spirit. In the beginning of early preparation and on a season outcome when overloads start to affect, sportsmen cannot concentrate on all of 100%.
Sportsmen and players are recommended to carry out before competition or a match razminochnye exercises. They help to warm up the fallen asleep muscles and joints, to normalise palpitation, to accelerate blood circulation and to concentrate thoughts to the control and coordination of movements. During warm-up exercises on extension and bending of muscles and joints of finitenesses and the case are carried out.
Types of traumas
There are different methods of classification of kinds of sports and the diseases connected with them. Some types of sports traumas are caused by long-term deterioration. Like details of cars, body parts in the course of time wear out under the influence of overloads. It conducts to occurrence of different forms of an arthritis and other illnesses, characteristic for advanced age.
Sports and productive leisure Kinds can be divided on two groups. That are connected with povtorjajushchi misja movements concern the first, - run, rowing, swimming and cycling. Here problems arise as though "шчэѕ=Ёш" owing to infinite repetition of movements or overloads for example, lucheplechevoj bursit, or "=хээшёэ№щ ыюъю=і". Where the constant stereotype of movements is not present enter Into the second. It is football, Rugby football, hockey, cricket, basketball. Here traumas occur owing to direct power contact to other player or sports stock.
In practice the sports medicine is engaged basically in muscles, bones and joints, i.e. The most mobile parts of a body which suffer from traumas more often. The majority of sports traumas, as a rule, is connected with damage of soft fabrics. A sprain of ligaments and muscles, cuts and grazes here enter.
In the stretched muscle separate thin muscular fibres are broken off or torn. Usually it occurs at any sharp or unusual movement.
The Internal bleeding in a muscle leads to its reduction and a hypostasis. The damaged place is painful to the touch, and the muscle does not work with full loading. In these cases apply fixing or supporting bandage. Before full healing and disappearance of a pain the absolute rest is ordered a muscle.
In case of rupture in a muscle the considerable number of fibres is damaged. It is very serious trauma demanding hospitalisation.
The Muscle fastens to bones elastic sinews which too are subject to stretchings and ruptures.
Long sinews of wrists, fingers and a popliteal pole, and also an Achilles' sinew which ikronozhnye muscles fasten to a back surface of a calcaneal bone are especially vulnerable.
The ends of bones are kept In a typical joint on a place by sheaves similar to belts. Usually the sheaf does not allow them to move too far not to overstrain a joint. At a stretching the sharp effort braids a joint, and sheaves are torn.
On a trauma place there is a hypostasis and a pain accruing at each movement.
At small traumas recover comes at observance of rest and presence of a supporting bandage. In hard cases there is a danger of an internal bleeding and long-term damage of articulate fabrics, and the patient requires hospitalisation.
At a dislocation the articulate ends of adjoining bones are displaced. We will tell, in a humeral joint a round top of a humeral bone "т№§юфш=" from a hollow lopatochnoj bones. It leads to rupture of sheaves and an articulate bag, causing an acute pain and internal damages of muscles, nerves and blood vessels.
There are dislocations of a humeral joint, extremely mobile More often. It occurs because of small depth of a hollow from which the bone can easily be displaced. At dislocations it is necessary to set first of all a joint then carefully to survey it about internal damages.
The largest at the person the knee joint ogranichenno is mobile in a direction "тяхЁхф-эрчрф". Unlike other joints, it is supplied by two floating cartilages mooned (meniscuses). They are between the ends femoral and bertsovoj bones, supplementing with itself their usual hrjashchevuju a cover.
At sharp turn or twisting of a knee joint there can be a destruction or meniscus rupture. They also can gradually degrade owing to long-term loadings and small traumas. All it usually name a meniscus trauma. Sometimes it is necessary to delete one or both meniscuses as the knee joint can work pretty well and without them.
Such large joints as knee, presently it is possible to investigate with the help artroskopa. It is flexible a body skopicheskaja a tube which is entered through a small cut and gets into a joint between muscles, sinews and sheaves. Traditional methods of inspection more travmatichny as demand a much bigger cut.
Bursit and tendinit
In certain places one parts of a body constantly move in relation to another. So, for example, sinews rub, adjoining to bones. The sinovialnaja bag is a soft lining between such surfaces which softens and greases moving elements of a joint. Sometimes from overloads and traumas there is a hypostasis or rupture sinovialnoj bags, i.e. bursit, causing an acute pain at movement. The bag over a patella usually inflames at "ъюыхэх уюЁэшёэющ" or prepatelljarnom bursite, often amazing and sportsmen.
Tendinit is an inflammation and a sinew hypostasis, is frequent after a small anguish or other not healed trauma. More often it amazes calcaneal, humeral and elbow joints. Tendinit in an elbow joint name "ыюъ=хь уюыі¶шё=р"; and outside - "=хээшёэ№ь ыюъ=хь".
There are some types of crises of bones. At simple crisis the bone is broken, but the next muscles and other fabrics remained are whole. At difficult crisis there are serious damages of the next fabrics, including a skin. A bone crack name incomplete crisis.
One of crisis versions often meets at sports walkers or runners and is called "ьрЁ=ютёъшь яхЁхыюьюь". Usually to it are subject pljusnevye bones of feet. First crisis is imperceptible, but the runner feels a pain in the arch of foot which at movement amplifies. Bones and sinews of palms are damaged at employment by mountaineering, boxing, basketball and cricket.
The certain way of revealing of crisis is the x-ray picture in hospital. Even small crisis demands medical assistance. If a bone not to set, it can incorrectly grow together, causing to the patient a constant pain and leading to physical inability.
The Skull also consists of bones and, means, too is subject to crises or cracks. However in this case brain damage is possible also. The strong blow to the head is not excluded in one kind of sports, therefore at consciousness loss at least on 1-2 seconds it is recommended to address as soon as possible to the doctor. Trauma signs (for example, an intracranial bleeding) can be shown only after some hours or days, and by this time already there will be irreversible changes. One more signal of danger is occurrence in an ear of the transparent spinal liquid expiring from a brain.
Back in a system?
Having been traumatised at competitions, the sportsman is usually torn again in fight. But in the nearest and remote prospect he is trapped by serious dangers. Remained in the field, it can complicate only a trauma, especially if to a course there are anaesthetising pricks or packages with ice. The pain is a signal of that not everything is all right and if it to muffle, the person, that without knowing, can do much harm to itself even more.
The Injured sportsman plays without full return. Constraint of movements threatens with a new trauma. Besides, in command games other players feel awkward, understanding that their companion cannot play at the full capacity. In such cases it is the most reasonable to make replacement.
The Important element of sports medicine is early diagnostics and the urgent help. If the player hard or awkwardly falls or hits about nepo dvizhnyj a subject, or faces other player, serious trauma possibility is not excluded. Before to get the victim moving forward, it is necessary to estimate a situation quickly. Usually it is easier to expert to make the preliminary diagnosis on a place while the picture is not greased by bruises, hypostases and tugopodvizhnostju joints.
At a fracture of spinal column, a basin or a foot any attempt to help having suffered shemu can sit down or rise only to worsen its condition. Therefore on any sports action necessarily there are club doctors and medical staff or at a special fracture clinic, or in ambulance cars on duty.
After statement of the diagnosis the doctor recommends this or that method of treatment. Not izmennymi its elements is the rest, fixing or supporting bandages, sometimes imposing of the tyre and, probably, soothing, anti-inflammatory or other means to relieve a pain and to accelerate recover. Besides, the physiatrist can recommend warming up, massage and the program of regenerative exercises which will return mobility to the injured joints and muscles.
Today specialisation more and more raises and technical equipment of sports medicine improves. Otherwise also cannot be, as the prize-winning sums of professional sports promptly increase, and to represent the command or the country for any sportsman always was business of special honour.