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the Liver, a bilious bubble and a pancreas

These three bodies play the important role in digestion system, helping to transform food consumed by us into separate components which can easily get to blood for direct mastering or accumulation.

As soon as the food partially is digested in a stomach and turns in sour liquid kashitsu - a chemical moustache - it is ready to a following stage of process of digestion. The chemical moustache through a narrow aperture (gatekeeper) in the bottom part of a stomach gets to a forward part of a small intestine - a duodenal gut. Cages of a wall of this gut under the influence of acid and the fat, containing in a chemical moustache, allocate a number of hormones the part from which arrives with a blood stream in other three important digestive bodies: a bilious bubble, a liver and a pancreas.

bile Production

One of these hormones, holetsistokinin, influences a bilious bubble - the pear-shaped body located on the bottom surface of a liver. The bilious bubble contains the bile developed by a liver, and if necessary allocates it. Bile - it a yellowish-green liquid which structure includes basically water plus cholesterol, bilious acids and the salts demanded for digestion, and products vydeleny a liver, including bilious pigments and the superfluous cholesterol deduced from an organism by means of bile.

Holetsistokinin forces a bilious bubble to be compressed and drive bile on the general bilious channel to a duodenal gut where it merges with a chemical moustache. If the chemical moustache there is not present, the valve in a bilious channel (so-called. sfinkter Oddi) remains closed and keeps bile inside.

Bile is necessary for the person for digestion of fats. Without it fats simply would slip through all intestines and were deduced from an organism. To prevent it, salts of bilious acids envelop fat as soon as it arrives in a duodenal gut, and transform it in emulsiju (a liquid with particles of fat in the form of a suspension), getting then into blood circulation system.

Daily the liver develops about litre of the bile, continuously arriving thin stream in the bilious bubble which capacity is too small for such quantity of a liquid. Therefore, having got there, bile is exposed to a 20-fold condensation, thus water is absorbed by a mucous membrane of walls of a bilious bubble and comes back in a blood-groove. The received dense, viscous liquid remains and collects there just as it occurs to food in a stomach: folded walls (or folds) internal vystilki a bilious bubble are stretched in process of bile accumulation.

In usual conditions fatty cholesterol in the concentrated bile remains liquid and cannot form a deposit. But if for any reason the liquid structure changes, cholesterol crystals can be besieged in a bilious bubble. There they incorporate to bilious pigments and salts and form gallstones of flavovirent colour of various size: from tiny crystals to the big stones in weight till 500 cholesteric stones and gallstones of dark shades Besides, can separately be formed.

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The Liver is some kind of a chemical plant, whose functions far are not settled by bile secretion. It is located directly under a diaphragm in the right top part of a belly cavity and is the greatest body of the person: its weight reaches about 1,4 kg. The liver volume is so great that, possibly, will be never completely demanded by an organism.

But this superfluous volume can sometimes be vital. The liver more than any other body is subject to a poisoning as everything that gets to a stomach, arrives therefrom directly in it. Fortunately, only after destruction to 75% of a liver there is a threat to health.

Obeskislorozhennaja blood arrives in a liver from a spleen, a stomach and an intestines on hepatic vorotnoj to a vein, bearing in itself all nutrients received from food which filter through capillaries into liver cages. And the fresh blood enriched by oxygen arrives on a hepatic artery. Together these two vessels provide delivery of raw materials and the energy necessary for performance by a liver of the difficult functions.

the regeneration Center

The Liver - the effective center of regeneration, especially for the exhausted red blood cages having usually a resource about 100 days. When they wear out, certain cages of a liver split them, leaving that else can serve, and deleting indecent (including the pigmentary bilirubin dumped in a bilious bubble). If this system fails, and the liver is incapable to delete bilirubin from blood or if it cannot be deduced at corking of bilious channels, this pigment accumulates in a blood-groove and causes a jaundice.

The Liver recycles not only red blood cages; even 3-4 grammes of bilious salts of an organism are used repeatedly. Having served its purpose in the course of digestion, salts repeatedly are absorbed from intestines and on hepatic vorotnoj to a vein arrive in a liver where again are processed in bile.

Reliable storehouse

Besides performance of these basic functions, the liver also processes all nutrients taken from food in the connections used by an organism for other processes. For this purpose a number of the enzymes playing a role of catalysts at transformation of one substances in others is stored in a liver. For example, the carbohydrates arriving in a liver in a kind monosaharidov, are processed at once in glucose - the major energy source for an organism. When there is a requirement for energy, the liver returns a glucose part in a blood-groove.

The glucose not Claimed at once should be processed once again as it cannot be stored in a liver. Therefore the liver will transform glucose molecules to molecules of more difficult of carbohydrates - glikogena which can be stored both in a liver, and in some muscular cages. If all these "§ЁрэшышЁр" are filled, all remained glucose is processed in one more substance - the fat postponed under a skin and in other sites of a body. When it is required to more energy, glikogen and fat will be transformed back to glucose.

Glikogen occupies the liver most part where vital for an organism stocks of iron and vitamins A, D and In 12, if necessary allocated in a blood-groove also are stored. Also less useful substances, including poisons not split by an organism, such as chemicals for spraying of fruit and vegetables here get. Some poisons destroy a liver (strychnine, nicotine, a part barbituratov and alcohol), however its possibilities are not boundless. If the excessive quantity of poison (for example, alcohol) is absorbed during the long period, the damaged cages will continue regeneration, but the place of normal cages of a liver will be occupied with a fibrous connecting fabric, forming hems. The developed cirrhosis will not allow a liver to carry out the functions and, finally, will lead to death.

the Pancreas

It is one more body playing the major role in the course of digestion. The pancreas is behind a stomach and hardly below it, and is similar to a lying flask. It carries out two functions: makes the strong digestive enzymes demanded for splitting carbohydrates, fibers and fats, and regulates quantity of sugar in an organism.

Daily this gland gives 1200 1500 sm of pancreatic juice - the transparent colourless liquid flowing on virsupgovu to a channel in a duodenal gut. Juice starts to be developed, as soon as the food gets to a mouth: flavouring sosochki language send signals to a brain, and that gives a command to a pancreas through a wandering nerve. But it is only preliminary stage: juice it is allocated more when the sour chemical moustache comes into contact to cages of a duodenal gut developing hormones. From here in blood two hormones, operating on a pancreas arrive: sekretin and holetsistokinin (pankreozimin). Alkaline on structure pancreatic juice will neutralise acid in a chemical moustache and stimulates work of other enzymes in a small intestine.

Pancreatic juice includes five basic enzymes. Three of them finish the digestion of fibers begun still in a stomach, and others two are amilaza, promoting digestion of carbohydrates, and lipaza - the unique enzyme of an organism splitting tiny droplets of fat, formed as a result of action of bile which is developed by a liver and is stored in a bilious bubble.

the Careful control

The Pancreas carries out one more important function - it makes hormones necessary for an organism insulin and gljukagon. These hormones are developed by groups of cages of gland, so-called islets of Langergansa. Insulin and gljukagon counterbalance action each other: gljukagon accelerates glucose receipt in blood, and insulin forces fabrics to absorb sugar, accordingly raising and reducing sugar level in blood. Operating in common, they regulate organism power resources. Any infringement in development of these hormones can become the diabetes reason - life-threatening the person of illness.