Food for growth and energy
In a XIX-th century scientists have allocated various components of food, such as fibers (proteins), fats and the carbohydrates necessary for growth and ability to live any live being.
Throughout all life the consumed food substantially defines growth, a physical condition of our organism and quantity of the energy developed by it necessary for maintenance of all processes of ability to live.
That such growth
The Human body consists of live cages and the intercellular substance, forming fabrics, bodies and systems. In the course of growth new cages are formed, and also develop already existing. From the moment of a birth till 19 years our body constantly grows: bones become longer, more thickly, more strong, an internal increases in sizes, muscles are increased, hair and nails are extended. As a result, the sizes and weight of all body increase.
But not all its parts grow in proportion and with identical speed. The head, for example, almost reaches the adult size in the first year of our life while the body continues to grow.
Limiting growth is marked in 16-21 year. If at this time the weight of the person corresponds to its growth it should be supported throughout all adult life.
When we say that someone's growth has already stopped usually it is a question of achievement of limiting growth for the given person. Actually we grow all life, since. In cages of our organism constantly there are restoration and updating processes.
That such energy
When we speak about presence - or more often about absence - energy usually we mean our ability to carry out a physical activity. However in relation to an organism concept of energy much wider. Even during a dream it consumes energy to carry out the functions, that is to provide trouble-free work of heart and muscles, lungs and a stomach, to maintain constant temperature. It is necessary to us to make any movement, at least simply to rise from a bed and to sit down on a chair as the organism starts to spend bolshee quantity of energy.
The Initial source of any energy on our planet is the Sun. Using its radiation, plants in the course of photosynthesis form monosaharidy. Some of them collect in seeds and tubers of plants in the form of starch. To use this energy, animals eat plants, and people use both vegetative and animal food.
Thus, we receive energy with food. But for food use as energy source the organism should subject to its processing.
The Given process is called as digestion (which begins in a mouth) when enzymes operate on food, splitting it on substances acquired by an organism.
All consumed food includes the basic nutritious components known as fibers, carbohydrates (sugar and krahmaly) and fats. Besides, it contains kletchatku, water, vitamins and minerals. All of them are necessary for our growth and health maintenance. Consumption of these nutrients in necessary quantity and a parity of the person consists mainly of fibers - the basic structural component of fabrics and bodies. Fibers make a basis of all cages, and some parts of an organism, such as hair, nails, a skin, a muscular fabric, almost completely consist of proteins. Fibers are necessary to the person constantly - as for formation of new cages and fabrics at children's and youthful age, and for maintenance and restoration of an organism of the adult person. It is natural that in the maximum physical growth it is necessary to consume as much as possible fibers.
The structure of fibers includes carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and some mineral substances. Incorporating in chains, these substances form more difficult components named amino acids and serving by bricks of which the body is under construction. Fibers contain, as a rule, 20 amino acids. Twelve of them an organism in a condition to synthesise itself, and the others should arrive together with food. Proteins of a various origin include different combinations of amino acids.
As all living tissues contain fibers receive them we can with animal or with vegetative food. Meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, groats, beans - sources of fibers.
Long time was considered that as the person concerns animals for us is better fibers of an animal origin approach. Thanks to the structure of amino acids they are called as high-grade fibers, and what contain in groats and grain - defective. But as also vegetative fibers contain amino acids in various combinations, it allows to provide completely almost an organism with all necessary proteins at the expense of a certain combination of vegetables, grain and bean. The maintenance of fibers in food is defined in grammes on everyone 100 gr. A product. Their maintenance in some products is more low resulted: beef low-fat - 18; chicken meat - 20; a string bean siliculose - 2,2; peas - 5,8; fresh milk - 3; bread from bran - 9; rice - 6,2; corn-flakes - 7,4. Day norm of consumption by the person of proteins to define difficultly as it, as well as many other factors, is subject to considerable fluctuations depending on living conditions and specific features. Dieticians usually recommend to the people who have not reached a physical maturity, to count daily consumption of fibers, proceeding from norm 4 g proteins on 1 kg of weight. For adults this quantity decreases till 1 If to use fibers much they, as a result, will turn to fats and to collect in an organism. If, on the contrary, in a diet there are no fibers (even at enough of other nutrients) the organism will start to spend own amino acids. The first in this case split and use fibers of muscles. Therefore people in which diet there are no proteins, look such exhausted.
Calories — an energy source
The Food can be considered as fuel for energy manufacture. Therefore dieticians define power value of food in the same units, as warmth, that is in calories. One calorie is the quantity of warmth necessary for heating 1 g of water on GS. Because of small size of this unit of measure power value of food is usually designated in kcals. This quantity of warmth necessary for heating 1 kg of water on GS.
Carbohydrates and the fats consumed together with food, are the basic energy sources. Carbohydrates are krahmaly and the sugar, accumulated by plants in seeds and tubers. Carbohydrates contain in groats, grain, root crops and fruit (especially it is a lot of them in dried fruits, bean and nuts). Besides, all kinds of food containing sugar, also are sources of carbohydrates. Meat, milk and dairy products here enter.
Fats contain in red meat (mutton, beef), all dairy products, margarine, the fat fish, some bean and nuts. Fats are subdivided on sated and nonsaturated. The sated fats which should be consumed moderately, have an animal origin. This meat and all kinds of dairy products.
Carbohydrates are postponed in muscles and a liver in a kind glikogena, supplying an organism with a source of instant energy. However in an organism large supplies of carbohydrates, therefore the basic energy source cannot collect are fats. They contain not enough oxygen that creates a high energy potential. It is established that fat is given almost in one and a half time of more calories, than by the same quantity (weight) of carbohydrates. However it is necessary to remember that carbohydrates are useful as a source of instant energy. They, instead of fats, if necessary provide to many sportsmen its fast allocation.
As we already saw, surpluses of fibers in a food allowance, postponed in an organism as fats, also can serve as energy sources. But at too large supply of fat (that is considerable adiposity) the person feels much less vigorous because of congestion of an organism in excessive weight.
Daily consumption of calories for optimum maintenance of an organism with energy changes depending on a sex, age, a kind of activity, weight of a body, a climate and other factors. It is established that for maintenance of processes of ability to live (a metabolism and trouble-free work of all bodies) the adult person spends approximately one kcal a minute that makes 1440 kcals a day. But, besides, this indicator is individual. Any work, even walking, demands power consumption increases, and such vigorous efforts, as driving on a bicycle or sports, - rather substantial growth. To the adult person conducting an active way of life, 800-1200 kcals a day are required in addition.
To satisfy requirements of a growing organism, it is required even more calories. For the first year of a life the person spends the greatest quantity of calories in recalculation for each kg of weight. In puberty the consumption level of calories also raises.
Except fibers, carbohydrates and fats, the majority of kinds of food contain also kletchatku, water, vitamins and mineral substances. Kletchatka and water are not nutrients as those. However they are very important for maintenance of a healthy way of life and for growth and supply of an organism by energy.
Kletchatka is the part of a plant making a basis of its structure. Much it contains in groats, grain and vegetables. It is a diet integral part as promotes the best digestion of food and deducing of slags from an organism. Besides, kletchatka is faster, than other substances, the feeling of hunger satisfies. The increase in its share in a diet helps to dump excess weight, thus. But during growth it is not necessary to fill an organism kletchatkoj to the detriment of fibers, vital for it during this period of a life.
Our organism mostly consists of water, therefore it is constantly necessary to support its water balance. Water dissolves and carries digestive enzymes on all body. In digestive process 9 litres of water a day are used approximately.
Vitamins and mineral substances contain in all natural foodstuff and are of great importance for health. Vitamins help to regulate exchange process, and also provide normal functioning of an internal, nerves and muscles. Mineral substances are important for maintenance in a healthy condition of bones, a teeth and blood, and also for regulation of water balance of an organism.
The Balanced food provides receipt in an organism neobhodi myh vitamins and mineral substances.
As how is?
Irrespective of age and a way of life, the purpose of a food for the person remains always same - daily to consume calories in quantity, sufficient for maintenance of health and reception of necessary energy. It is important, that these calories arrived in an organism with food where fibers, carbohydrates and fats would be present at certain proportions. A recommended parity: 44% of carbohydrates, 14% of fibers, 42% of fats. In growth percentage of fibers can be increased at the expense of decrease in consumption of carbohydrates.