the Plastic can for water is easy, as a fuzz, and filled up to the top becomes almost very heavy. Differently, water - marvellously heavy substance. Meanwhile, our body at least half consists of water, or organism liquids.
In a body of the chest baby of water and that it is more - to 65%. In process of growth and accumulation of fatty adjournment the water maintenance in an organism decreases, reaching approximately 60% at the average man and 50% - at the woman.
Though the liquid total in an organism depends on our dimensions, fluctuations in this or that party at different people are rather insignificant. But the parity between a quantity of water and ve a catfish of a body varies more aloud, since. For hangs from weight of the saved up fat. Fat does not contain some water, therefore, the the person, the less share of water in gross weight of its body is more corpulent. Therefore at the high thin person of water in an organism at gradually as much, how many at the same tall fat man. In a body of the average adult man contains about 40 42 litres of water - enough, that properly popleskatsja in a shower!
Types of liquids
There are two basic types of liquids of an organism - endocellular and extracellular. Extracellular liquids consist mostly of blood plasma (about 3 litres) and a fabric liquid (about 12 litres). The endocellular liquid is the main component of cages, and at the average adult person its volume makes approximately 25 litres.
the Liquid exchange
The Human body, like beer honeycombs, consists of set of the cages divided by microscopic intervals on which the fabric liquid circulates. In our organism there is a continuous water exchange to participation of blood, intercellular and fabric liquids.
Blood (consisting of water on 60%) to stavljaet in the dissolved kind necessary for cages (containing 80% of water) nutrients. In the course of cage ability to live develop carbonic gas which is necessary for deleting together other waste. All this work is carried out with the assistance of a fabric liquid. A waste through walls of cages gets to a fabric liquid, and therefrom through walls of capillaries - in blood. Simultaneously from blood in cages a food in the form of oxygen and other chemical substances by same means arrives. And, at last, the fabric liquid which has fulfilled the term too joins a blood-groove.
Almost all liquid arrives directly in blood, but its certain part comes back in a blood-groove from the lymphatic system combating pathogenic microbes and containing molecules - for example, albuminous, - which are too great to get into blood through walls of capillaries.
the Maintenance and water loss
It is necessary to get rid Of many products of ability to live of cages, and blood bears them in kidneys where takes place a filtration and clearing, and harmful substances separate and dissolved in the urine consisting mainly from water. Urine collects in a bladder and is periodically deduced from an organism.
The moisture Part continuously evaporates with then and at each exhalation. Its small quantity is present and in kale (firm excrement). In usual conditions the adult person loses for days about 1,5 l of water.
For normal functioning it is necessary for an organism, that the water maintenance in it remains more or me it to constants, therefore, continuously losing water, we should regularly vozobnov ljatee stocks. A water quantity contains in food, but its main part arrives with drink. At usual comfortable temperature and a normal food the person should drink for a day at least two thirds of litre of water. In a heat, at heavy physical activities or during illness the organism loses with then much more a liquid, and the requirement for drink, accordingly, increases.
Thus, water is much more important for a life, than food as without daily drink the organism cannot normally function. If we without special harm for ourselves can manage long enough without meal without water we are capable to live much less. It is important to remember that, been going to hunger for any reason, we should drink water more usual that compensated shortage of the liquid usually arriving in an organism with vegetables and fruit.
Feeling of thirst
Liquid Consumption (in the form of fruit juice, tea or other drinks) partly depends on a habit, and we quite often drink, actually without requiring replenishment of water-supplies. If we drink over need, our organism simply deduces surplus of a liquid with urine.
And on the contrary, at its shortage concentration of urine raises, that the organism did not lose precious water.
If it is required to an organism of more water, than we drink, there is a feeling of thirst. It operates gipotalamus - the site of a brain which is carrying out a number of various functions, including regulating feeling of thirst and hunger. nervny cages gipotalamusa supervise a blood-groove, and also level of concentration of salts and other substances in blood. If the blood total amount decreases, specifying that the organism requires water, nervous cages stimulate development of the hormone causing dryness in a throat and then we would like to drink.
The Same gipotalamus regulates intensity of work of kidneys and, hence, volume of a liquid which is deduced from an organism with urine. In management of feeling of thirst gipotalamus operates together with the nervous terminations of an oral cavity and a throat. They are connected to a trunk of a brain and, having received from it a signal that is drunk enough liquid, extinguish feeling of thirst still before water will go to circulate on an organism.
Besides food delivery to cages, waste disposal and struggle against illnesses, out of cellular liquids carry out some more the major functions. One of them consists in carrying over and distribution on fabrics of the dissolved salts and other chemical substances, for example, hormones developed by an organism and enzymes (enzimov). By means of salts muscles and nervous cages are put in action, and hormones and enzymes regulate and supervise many functions of an organism. Some liquids carry out also a role of a protective pillow. For example, the brain as though floats in a spinal liquid which not only supplies with its nutrients, but also operates as the shock-absorber, softening blows. Brjushina, a surrounding and preserving internal of a belly cavity (a stomach, a liver, a spleen and an intestines) a quantity of a liquid, which as good greasing, softens a mutual friction between bodies too contains. In the same way the liquid filling nearby a warm bag and a pleura round lungs operates.
The Dissolved salts are necessary not only for accurate work of muscles and nerves, but also for maintenance of a normal liquid exchange between blood, a fabric liquid and cages.
The cellular covers Penetrated by blood capillaries polupronitsaemy. It means that for liquids and the smallest molecules the way is free, and for larger molecules and the firm substances dissolved in liquids - is not present. Process of penetration of liquids and small molecules through these seminontight barriers is called osmosom, and balance supported with its help - as osmotic pressure. All exchange of nutrients and ability to live products, i.e. The basis of an equilibrium condition of a live organism, is provided by means of this pressure.
The Optimum balance of the maintenance of salts of blood and fabrics has huge value for health of the person. Thanks to it necessary osmotic pressure is supported and it is not supposed vsasyvanie a superfluous liquid from blood in cages. When during illness or in a heat the person strongly sweats, its blood loses salts and if this loss quickly not to fill with food concentration of salts in fabrics becomes above, than in blood.
As the result, osmotic pressure in cages raises, and water from blood passes in fabric liquids and cages. And here cages are already filled to edges, and the organism tests in the meantime a severe shortage of an extracellular liquid.