Blood is a life, without it the organism cannot function. Adjusted by the warm pump, she runs on the branched out network of arteries and veins, carrying in cages oxygen and nutrients and deleting a harmful waste.
We often hear expression "цштю=тюЁэр ъЁюті" without reflecting on its real value. Meanwhile, blood in literal sense is the life carrier. Circulating on all body, it supplies all live cages with the nutrients necessary for development of energy, and raw materials for growth, ability to live and restoration of the damaged fabrics. Besides it cleans all waste, especially carbonic gas which is formed in the course of food processing in energy from cages. Is at blood and the third function - destruction or neutralisation pronikshih in an organism of pathogenic microorganisms.
it is a lot of at us blood?
Blood makes about 1/14 part from body gross weight, and its quantity depends on your physical dimensions. The average man about 5 l of blood, at the woman hardly has less. Approximately 45% from blood total amount make various types of cages, each of which carries out the singular problems. Major of them - red (eritrotsity) and white (leukocytes) blood little bodies.
All these tiny cages freely float in the substance named plasma of All in an organism about 3 l of this dense liquid svetlojantarnogo of colour, consisting basically from water with small impurity of proteins, salts and glucose.
The Most part of nutrients consumed with food is soaked up in blood through small intestines walls. Thus one are immediately transferred to cages, others at first are processed by a liver and other glands before the organism can take advantage of them.
Blood circulates in an organism on the closed system of blood vessels - arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries and veins are water-proof, but walls of the most thin capillaries pass water, glucose, amino acids and other substances that they could get to living tissues.
The Water exchange in capillaries occurs to constant speed, therefore the blood volume remains invariable. Water washes away from cages a waste of their ability to live for the further removal from an organism. Blood constantly "яЁюь№трх=ё " kidneys which take from it harmful substances and deduce them with urine.
Fibers of plasma
Albuminous molecules as a part of plasma are too great to get through walls of capillaries. Them name albuminami, globulinami and fibrinogenami. Most of all in plasma albumina which supports constant osmotic pressure of blood. This pressure directed against pressure, created by heart, soaks up water and a waste from cages as blood is started up on veins in a way back.
Antibodies, neutralised infection activators, consist of gamma globulin fibers. They are developed by a spleen or lymph nodes and continue to circulate in blood after destruction of a primary infection, doing us impregnable to repeated attacks. Fibrinogen, as well as albumin, it is developed by a liver and plays the important role in the course of a fibrillation.
Eritrotsity are obliged by the scarlet colour to a pigment named haemoglobin. Each section is similar to a round small pillow with apertures on each side. Haemoglobin grasps oxygen from lungs and carries it on all cages of an organism. Having given oxygen, it from scarlet becomes dark red or purple. Then, having taken from cages carbonic gas, haemoglobin delivers it in lungs, whence that is deduced with an exhalation. Eritrotsity are developed by a marrow and there live 3-4 months. From infinite set eritrotsitov every second perishes about 5 million.
Shortage eritrotsitov leads to variety of the illnesses having the general name - an anaemia. The organism cannot develop haemoglobin without iron and though many people of stocks of this element have enough, however slow, but a constant bleeding as, say, at a stomach ulcer, is capable to cause an anaemia. At women the anaemia meets more often, than at men, or from undereating and heavy loadings, or in pregnancy when the parent organism supplies with iron a fruit, without leaving it for the needs.
White blood little bodies, or leukocytes, too are developed by a marrow. Spherical under the form, they hardly more eritrotsitov also are the main weapon of an organism in struggle against illnesses. There are two basic types of leukocytes. It granulotsity, named so because contain set of the granules randomly disseminated in a cage, and limfotsity which are developed by lymphatic system and a liver.
Attacking pronikshie in a body microorganisms, granulotsity surround them and devour. As if group of fast reaction, they are always ready to fight and promptly breed at the slightest infection or a trauma. Limfotsity remind system of defensive patrols more and longer reconstruct fighting usages before to snatch on strangers. They participate and in development of antibodies. Leukocytes freely circulate through walls of capillaries, and they are easy for finding in living tissues, they vigilantly protect whose health.
the blood Analysis
As at a trauma or illness orgayonizm in 3-4 times increases development of leukocytes, for diagnosis statement often do the blood analysis. The small portion of blood is exposed to research at which the number of different cages is counted up. We will tell, a belly-ache with not clear, but unpleasant symptoms can specify either on nesvarenie, or in an appendicitis. If thus the maintenance of leukocytes in blood test is raised, it, most likely, an appendicitis. By means of the blood analysis define also level gemo-globina, and powerful modern microscopes are applied to revealing of physical anomalies in cages. Sometimes in blood test pus is found out. It is a mix from the lost leukocytes and the microorganisms absorbed by them. Leukocytes even are capable to destroy and expel from a body foreign matters in size about a splinter or a prickle. Sometimes, the truth, and with leukocytes there are problems. At their surplus in an organism speak about a malignant leukaemia. Rather sensitive to influence of poisons and radiation, the marrow can slow down development eritrotsitov and leukocytes, leading to rare disease - aplasticheskoj to an anaemia.
At any damage of blood system the internal or external bleeding opens. The big loss of blood is very dangerous. The person can without special harm for itself lose to 15% of blood, but excess of this threshold often leads to death. The slow and long bleeding conducts to an anaemia, and prompt loss of blood causes a shock at which pressure falls so low that blood ceases to arrive in heart.
In an organism there is the special system which is not supposing superfluous loss of blood. It is the curling mechanism. The marrow develops special cages - trombotsity which on size even it is less eritrotsitov. At the slightest damage of a blood vessel trombotsity direct to break and are pasted to its walls and to each other, forming a stopper.
Sticking together, trombotsity - as well as the damaged fabric - allocate veshchestyova, curlings starting the mechanism. They also allocate a hormone serotin which stimulates compression of blood vessels, reducing a blood-groove.
Bound together trombotsity induce fibrinogen - one of the fibers dissolved in plasma - to formation of threads of insoluble fiber of fibrin, and blood is curtailed. Fibrinous threads braid with a dense network of a blood cell, forming semifirm weight. Then this network is compressed, allocating a light yellow liquid, or whey, and forms a firm clot. The blood total amount will be restored in some hours after a bleeding stop on a measure vsasyvanija waters from fabrics, but for restoration of blood cells some weeks are required.
From all infringements of coagulability of blood the hereditary illness a hemophilia is most known. It amazes only men, but women can be its carriers and transfer to the sons. However, this rare enough disease amazing about one boy from 10 000. The hemophilia is generated by absence in blood of one of curtailing factors, the plasma fiber known as antigemofilichesky globulin or the factor VIII. Even the small cut can cause strong krovopoterju, and patients quite often suffer from internal bleedings for no apparent reason. In the past the majority of such patients died in the childhood. Today by it do blood transfusions and injections of the factor VIII taken from plasma that allows to conduct a normal way of life.
Blood of each of us belongs to certain type, or group. Groups are formed on features of chemical structure of covers eritrotsitov. There are some systems of classification of blood on groups, but in the world the system And In About, entered into 1900 in Vienna Charles Landshtajnerom more often is applied. It totals four groups - And, In, AV and O
Knowledge of a blood type very important in situations when because of accident or during operation there is a necessity for transfusion for blood of other group can bring more harm, than advantage. Blood of one groups can be poured easy to any person, others give a hostile reception to inflow of another's blood. In the latter case your blood perceives another's as the enemy because of distinctions in a chemical compound and destroys it eritrotsity as though it there were harmful bacteria.
the Rhesus factor
In 1940 same Landshtajner has opened one more classification of blood - rezusnuju. It consists of 6 factors, major of which - factor D. It is present in eritrotsitah 85% of people, doing their Rhesus factor positive. At the others of 15% of factor D in blood are not present, i.e. A Rhesus factor at them negative. If with a negative Rhesus factor to transfuse to the person the Rhesus factor-positive blood, its own blood will apprehend factor D as alien substance and will develop antibodies for its neutralisation. At the first transfusion of an antibody obyorazujutsja too slowly, that vyyozvat complications but after that the person gets proof immunity to faktoyoru D. At following transfusion its blood forms antibodies for destruction of alien cages.
Risk of incompatibility
Are especially subject to risk of the woman with a negative Rhesus factor. As well as all blood types, Rh - the factor is descended. If at the wife a Rhesus factor negative, and at the husband - positive at their child it can be positive. As blood cells are too great to pass from a fruit to mother in pregnancy, the Rhesus factor-positive of a cage of the child is no by possibilities to force mother to develop antibodies. Therefore, if mothers never a Rhesus factor-positive blood problems will not be earlier was transfused. However at sorts mother has a bleeding through a placenta, and cages of the child can get to parent veins. Then it will develop against them antibodies and will get immunity to factor D. That it has not occurred, to women with a negative Rhesus factor enter after an antibody first labour to factor D thanks to what their organism does not develop own antibodies.