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the life Beginning

the Live organism consists from microscopic "ъшЁяшёшъют" - the cages which are a basis of its structure and ability to live. In cages there are the chromosomes containing important for the creation and under derzhanija lives the information.

In 1838 Teodor Shvann and Mattias Shnejden, independently from each other studying plants, have come to a uniform conclusion: a basis of live organisms is the cage. Later, in 1859, Rudolf Virhov has expressed opinion that not only all live (from plants and the elementary forms of fauna to the person) consists of cages, but also cages create other cages. This theory is taken as a principle the scientific discipline named molecular biology.

Thanks to the further improvement of a microscope there was a possibility to study a cage. Amazing similarity between cages of all vital forms was revealed. In the beginning considered that the cage represents a clot zheleobraznogo substances with a kernel in the center, forcing it "яѕыіёшЁютр=і". Today scientists know that the structure of a cage is much more difficult: in everyone there are many subcellular elements - organoidy, each of which carries out certain function.

Studying of cages was promoted in many respects by the invention of the electronic microscope, allowing to observe the smallest particles inaccessible to a usual microscope with the big increase. Also it was revealed that organoidy some cages it is possible to paint, thanks to what there was a possibility to watch their behaviour.

Behaviour of cages .

Many interesting opening have grown out of laboratory researches of cages. In the center of each cage really there is a kernel, and it operates behaviour organoidov, sending to them chemical "ъюьрэф№". Also it has been revealed that the cage is not static - it grows and, having reached the certain sizes, shares. It was found out that the kernel consists of a number of the smallest genes which settle down chaotically while the cage is at rest but when it starts to grow and prepare for division, genes are built by groups in a strict order. The genes grouped thus are called as chromosomes. (They have received such name because of the ability to be painted, and there is it from the Greek words "chroma" - "чтх=" and "soma" - "=хыю").

During growth of a cage and its preparation for chromosome division always settle down in a certain order: they unite in a spiral and move to opposite borders of a kernel. At cage division in two, the kernel too shares on two parts, therefore in each new cage there is a kernel. Each of two new cages contains identical quantity of pair chromosomes and is completely identical to a parent cage.

These opening have laid down in a theory basis according to which in chromosomes it is stored "=рщэр цшчэш" also that they somehow define the nature of cages. The further researches have shown that cages consist basically of difficult molecules of nucleinic acid. There are two kinds of this acid: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is in a kernel, and RNK (ribonucleic acid) meets as well in other parts of a cage. DNA structure includes genes, therefore DNA creates chromosomes when the cage is ready to division. DNA defines, which cage will be formed, and provides full identity of two new cages formed as a result of division, with a parent cage. DNA contains "ърыіъѕ" according to which all live organisms get the special lines.

Germinal cages

In spite of the fact that one cage can turn in two, and those is in four etc., the life of people and animals begins not with one cage, and from two. One of them (egg) gives mother, and the second (spermatozoid) - the father. These cages are called as germinal, they strongly differ from all other cages that instead of usual pair chromosomes at division each of them has single chromosomes.


Therefore, when man's and female sexual cages meet and prepare for the division, two groups of single chromosomes incorporate in corresponding steams, and two germinal cages start to behave as one general cage. The moment when two cages meet, merge and share, called as fertilisation with which the new life begins. After fertilisation cages already have the genes forming steams of chromosomes at cellular division. But the special combination of the chromosomes received equally from each of parents, defines unique specific features of each person and an animal.