Appearance of the person
As well as all live beings, we are appreciably obliged by the appearance to evolutionary processes thanks to which for millions years the person has adapted to environment, more and more keeping away from the ancient ancestors.
The Person as a kind concerns primacies where lemurs, monkeys also enter, anthropoids, but for the long period of development we have differently adapted to environment.
Inhabitants of trees
All primacies whom we so remind, are adapted for a life on trees, and possess good sight, dexterity, ability to use finitenesses, and also are inclined more likely to searches, than to hunting. Believe that our own humanoid ancestors very much resembled millions years ago these inhabitants of trees, and we have inherited many lines from them. For example, the acute eyesight is especially necessary for the "wood" inhabitants having the big radius of the review. As a result, at ancestors of the person the acute eyesight to the detriment of the sense of smell more useful at tracing of extraction below, on the earth has developed. So, a site of a brain of the person, connected with sense of smell, as well as a nose, were and remain concerning the small size. Perhaps, the dramatic change which has occurred in process of human beings which distinguishes us from animals, is a vertical position of a body, transition to prjamohozhdeniju and to a land way of life. Besides, unlike other primacies, we have dumped the scalp most part, and constantly improved sleight of hand has led to that they began to differ strongly both from paws of other animals, and from forward finitenesses of our direct primogenitors.
As to thinking, that here we have left far forward from all live beings of a planet - after all only people possess a speech power and logic thinking. Powers of thinking were showed and in appearance of the person, partially having defined his head form.
With it is proud of the lifted head
Much of our remote past is still not clear, but all the same rather considerable opening have been made at careful studying of fossilized skeletons and instruments of labour which were used by the person in the course of the development.
From time to time there is the interesting data opening the new facts of our development. Rather recently, in 1961, the important data has been found in gorge Oldovaj in Tanzania (East Africa) about our past in the form of the hardened print of toes not numerous, but. It is defined that to this print of the right foot more than one million years and that it belongs to a humanoid. Distribution of loading to a foot specifies that the being went on hind legs.
Till now it is not clear, how the person has turned to vertically moving being, on is conclusive got the fact that the given process could not occur without respective alterations in our anatomy - in structure of a skeleton and muscles. Scientists named a manner of walking of the person "яю=хэчшрыіэю ър=рё=Ёю¶шёхёъющ" as, doing a step forward and leaving only one foot on the earth, then instantly transferring all weight on a thumb, and the only thing that keeps it from falling by the person downwards is an immediate advance of other foot.
The center of gravity of the standing person is in lumbar department of a backbone and tazovom a belt, and movement of bones tazovogo belts operates step-by-step movement of a foot. The coxofemoral joint is supervised by muscular system, in particular, by muscles tazovogo belts and besides their reductions stimulate feet to do step-by-step movements, these muscles also help all body to keep balance at walking or in a standing position. During walking all body moves forward by means of energy of muscles which, being reduced, force feet to do step-by-step movements serially. The knee and an anklebone are bent automatically so that the foot rose over the earth, and on termination of a step the knee is unbent, while the anklebone remains bent so that the first contact with the earth was necessary on a heel. Vertical position of a body also is kept by muscular system, and this management is concentrated to the center of gravity (lumbar department and tazovom a belt).
Believe that transition in vertical position was a turning point in development of the person, but anatomic adaptation which has made it possible, has occurred not suddenly. Such muscular management which it was mentioned above, is inherent in the modern person, and our ancestor more similar to an anthropoid, could not rise and go simply as its long and wide basin, the extensive hanging down thorax, long forward finitenesses and massive jaws caused other center of gravity.
To learn to stand (and then and to go) and to remain in vertical position, simultaneous development of shorter, roundish basin, the truncated forward finitenesses, and also change of the form of a head and a thorax was necessary. Anyhow, consider that at some instant beings similar to anthropoids began to remind more the person as have started time part to spend in vertical position; but have passed still millions years while their anatomy did not adapt so that vertical position became for them norm. Many scientists now abandon to the idea that our remote ancestors with the too long back and rather short forward finitenesses reminded more likely a lemur, than an anthropoid though the given hypothesis can and be challenged. As a whole believe that fast movement between trees at which the body weight is supported by forward finitenesses (brahiatsija), has played a considerable role in walking development on back finitenesses.
Why our ancestors who have adapted to a life on trees, have left them is not clearly. Some scientists believe that they could gradually larger and heavier become, because of what jumps from a tree on a tree became risky. Other theory asserts that our relatives living on trees gradually have gone down on the earth because it became heavy to them to back cubs - as, for example, it is done by modern chimpanzees. Also consider that, hanging on forward finitenesses, primacies have opened for themselves vertical position at which "hands" could remain free. It, in turn, could appear a push for use of instruments of labour; and the life on the earth had a number of advantages.
Change of the environment to which it was necessary for it to adapt became Other factor in development of the person out of trees. The event in miotsene (lasted not less than 14 million years, has ended about 7 million years ago) a climate cold snap has led to considerable reduction of the areas of large forests and distribution is far on the south of a tundra zone, i.e. Almost open plains so for many animals residing on trees became more impossible.
Though we also do not know precisely, have how occurred descent from trees and adaptation to a life on the earth, it is possible to be assured that it there was a slow and gradual evolutionary process. Quite probably that brahiatsija has found the reflexion in our manner instinctively to make otmashki hands at walking.
One more stage in development of the person - a reduction (nedorazvitie or a total absence) a scalp. Besides, scientists precisely do not know, as well as at what stage it has occurred. Believe that when gominidy have passed to a life on the earth and were engaged in hunting, to them became too hot under a dense scalp, and the nature has gradually deprived of these beings of a wool, thereby, having improved the mechanism of cooling of a body.
the Skin and hands
There is a hypothesis, according to which the reason of loss of a wool of a steel of climate change, but it is improbable, as other mammals have kept a dense woollen cover - it serves them as protection against a cold in polar widths and from a heat in tropics. It is supposed that the thin skin of the person is the certificate of its origin in warm climatic zones; and only then it gradually migrated in colder regions where clothes carrying was necessary for body warming.
Though primacies possess forward finitenesses similar to hands with which they cling to branches, jumping mi they cling to branches, jumping from a tree on a tree, and keep food, and some from antropoidnyh monkeys have developed enough brain and can hold the elementary instruments of labour and make them elementary actions by means of the "Ёѕъ" the person - the unique live being having the present hands and capable precisely and skilfully to address with any subjects.
the Strong grasp
The Distinctive feature of our hands is a thumb, long enough and opposed by the rest. The given finger allows us to grasp densely subjects and to use a hand with the big efficiency.
Hand Development has helped the person and to hunt, sufficing extraction, and to cope with instruments of labour. With use of hands we are helped very much by muscles of powerful forearms and shoulders, giving the chance to keep subjects on weight and to transfer weights. It, no less than the form of hands, flexibility and force of thumbs, distinguishes us from travojadnyh primacies.
the Mouth and speech
Ability to transfer subjects on forearms and in hands meant that the person, unlike other animals-hunters, has ceased to use jaws and a teeth for extraction dragging. And it has led to that the mouth became less, and the humanoid has learnt to publish more difficult sounds.
Though besides taki it seems that the beginning of development of speech concerns even up the time of dwelling on trees when our ancestors possessing an acute eyesight and the big radiuses of the review, had something in common among themselves, sitting on trees.
Accurater mouth promoted little changes of language, lips and not ba, necessary for formation of organs of articulation, but our unique way of communications and self-expression would not be possible without powerful intellectual potential. Now, being based on studying of cranial moulds of trees them humanoid, believe that our brain during evolution became well developed early enough, and that beings with a brain similar to ours, lived three million years ago.
Big, it is characteristic the generated brain, and also small jaws have formed a head of the person, distinguishing us from other primacies, and have helped us to develop speech.
we Learn to stand
Newborn children pass mankind evolution in a miniature: at first learn to creep, then to stand, then to go. It is necessary to seize and the muscular management connected with these movements. For the small child balance preservation - a difficult problem, but soon it becomes its second nature.